Nails in the diagnosis of disease:The color, shape, and nature of a person’s nails might reveal their general health and hygiene habits.
The nails are found at the end of each fingertip on the back of the hand. The main job of nails is to keep things safe, but they also make it easier to hold things in place.
It comprises a strong but not very flexible, keratinous nail plate from the nail matrix. It’s called the nail bed, and it’s soft. It’s under the nail plate.
There is a fold or cuticle called a nail fold between the skin and the nail plate. It is normal for healthy nails to be a little pink and for the surface to be convex from one side to the other. They grow 1 cm in three months for fingernails and 24 months for toenails.
The importance of nails in the diagnosis of disease:
If you look at a person’s colour, appearance, shape, and nature of their nails, you can learn about their general health and hygiene habits. All doctors check Nails regularly to see if they show signs of a bigger problem. We can tell how clean someone is just by looking at their nails.
When a person is born with an abnormal nail, it may be because of a disease. The reasons why the nail changes range from simple things to things that could kill you. It is very important to have a doctor look at you to figure out what’s wrong. Some things that aren’t normal and what might be the cause are discussed here for general knowledge.
The first thing to think about is hygiene.
We can tell if a nail isn’t cleaned very quickly.
A buildup of dirt under the distal end of the nail plate can make it more likely that pathogens will get into your body when you eat.
Nail cutting can cause worm problems for children if it isn’t done the right way.
When the worms crawl into the anal orifice, children will scratch, which hides the eggs of the worms under their nails. When they eat, they will get them.
Prominent nails can also make a skin disease worse if you scratch your skin all the time.
Sharp nails in small kids can hurt them when they kick their feet or wave their hands.
The colour of the nails:
- in anaemia, the nails become pale.
- It’s called “leuconychia,” and it’s seen in people who have chronic renal failure and people who have nephrotic syndrome.
- Whitening is also seen in hypoalbuminemia, such as with cirrhosis and kidney problems, so
- Drugs like sulpha group, anti-malarial, and antibiotics can make the nails look bad.
- Fungal infections cause black discolouration.
- The nails turn black or green when they get infected with pseudomonas.
- Vasculitis can cause nail beds to die, especially in SLE and polyarteritis.
- In subacute bacterial endocarditis, arthritis, trauma, collagen vascular diseases, red dots appear in the nails because of splinter haemorrhages, which happen when blood leaks from the splinter.
- Blunt injuries cause bleeding and make the skin look blue or black.
- In kidney disease and when the adrenal glands aren’t working as well, nails turn brown.
- There is a blue semicircle in the nails of people who have Wilson’s disease, and it looks like this:
- When there is less blood flow, the nails turn yellow. In both jaundice and psoriasis, the nails turn yellow.
- In yellow nail syndrome, all nails turn yellow when there is a pleural effusion.
The shape of nails:
- Clubbing: The tissues at the base of the nails become thicker, making it hard to see where the nail base meets the skin. In this case, the nail becomes more convex, and the tip of the finger looks like the end of a drum stick. A parrot’s beak is what the nail looks like when it gets worse.
Clubbing is caused by:
Severe, long-term cyanosis
Empyema, bronchiectasis, carcinoma of the bronchus, and pulmonary tuberculosis are all lung diseases.
Crohn’s disease, polyposis of the colon, ulcerative colitis, liver cirrhosis, and more are all abdominal diseases.
Heart problems like Fallot’s tetralogy, subacute bacterial endocarditis, and more can happen.
Here, the nails become like a spoon. This happens when there is not enough iron in the body.
In this case, the nails become very thin, soft, and brittle, so they are not very strong. In the future, concavity will be used instead of convexity.
- In Raynaud’s disease, longitudinal ridging can be seen.
- In dermatomyositis, the cuticle is rough.
It is a sign of dermatomyositis, systemic sclerosis, and SLE when the nail folds become red.
In this part, we’ll talk about structure and consistency:
- A fungal infection causes the nail to become discoloured, deformed, hypertrophic, and brittle.
- In psoriasis, eczema is very bad, and alopecia is very bad; the nails get a lot of tiny holes.
- The inflammation of the cuticle or nail fold is called paronychia, which is called that because it is so bad.
- Onycholysis is the separation of the nail bed that can happen with psoriasis, infections, and after taking tetracyclines.
- Two conditions cause nails to fall off: lichen planus and epidermolysis bullosa
- Nail patella syndrome is caused by having no nails at all. People who have it pass it on.
- This is because nails become weak with Raynaud’s disease and gangrene.
- Fungal infection, psoriasis and thyroid disease are all causes of nails to fall off, as are skin infections.
Nails grow slower when there is less blood flow. Nail growth also slows down in a very bad case of illness. When the disease is gone, the growth starts again, which causes transverse ridges to form. These lines are called Beau’s lines, and they can help you figure out when you first got sick.